Viking Waterway

Frozen Trail to Merica

Maalan Aruum
(aka Walam Olum)


  Maalan Aarum Sticks
  Long Houses
  Stone Tower 




Ancient American Alliance

The Maalan Aarum STICKS

The most important artifacts were the 184 thin wooden sticks, which were about as wide as a thumb and as long as from the tip of the thumb to the second joint, from the tip, of the thumb.

Each stick had a pictograph, which was the key the memory of a stanza which had been memorized by Lenape in their youth. The memory was often refreshed during their lives. Most Lenape may have known many of the stanzas when the pictographs were surrendered to EurAmericans. The Lenape historians probably knew them very well. The oral stanzas, supplemented by the sticks, carried the historical information.

The picture below by Hal Sherman, adopted Shawnee artist, depicts the episode where the Maalan Aarum sticks were surrendered to Dr. Ward of the US Army in about 1820.

A painting by Hal Sherman depicting the passing of the maalan aarum (Walum Olam) Sticks

Professor Brinton, in the Lenape and their Legends, describes the sticks. They did exist and were in a Pennsylvania Museum for several decades until the owner of the sticks removed them the Museum. Then they vanished.

The original copy of the pictographs on the sticks was made by Rafinesque. The recorded sounds associated with the sticks were made by Moravians, who were missionaries among the Lenape. The English translation associated with the sticks appears to have been a cooperative effort between the Moravians, who appeared to have been weak when translating non-mission Lenape, and the Lenape speaker, who appears to have been capable of listening to, but not speaking, English.

The copy of the original sticks, the sounds, and even the flawed English translations are a coherent Genesis and then history of the Lenape. The Genesis creation can be dated to 880 years ago. The Lenape migration in Chapter 3 began 660 years ago, but the Lenape stanza maker details Greenland events that extend back to about 950 years ago.

This record of Genesis and History is the oldest accurate account of past events in northeast America. The environmental disaster (Stanza 8, 9, 10, 11) caused by European livestock in Greenland and the salvation of the Greenland people, who sailed to America, is history found in no other book.

Long Houses on Ungava Bay

The longhouses on Ungava Bay are solid evidence that the people described by the Maalan Aarum came to America.The plot of the Frozen Trail to Merica books was based on the evidence found in these longhouses.

map of longhouse locations on the Ungava penninsula

Thomas E. Lee researched the longhouses on Pamiok Island. He concluded,

“Five of the twelve Longhouses on Ungava Bay can be 'matched in ... the Old Norse settlements--in size, construction, shape, partitions, vestibules, ember pits, and in the trash heaps'"

(Lee 1970)

Lee thought that there were three phases of occupation of the longhouses: A very brief Norse phase followed by a Dorset phase. Then later, he thought, the Thule Eskimos occupied the site.

During Lee’s investigation someone found a Norse ax and moved it away from the research area. When Lee found out about the ax, the artifact was out of context and could not be dated.

Lee also found skeletons in stone lined graves. Some of the skulls appeared to be Norse skulls.

view video of the evidence:

Viking Visitors to North America
Tony Ianzelo & by Anthony Kent,
National Film Board of Canada

A decade later Patrick Plummet led another archaeological expedition to the Ungava long houses. Plummet was obviously better financed by the Canadian Government. His research team used helicopters and other high technological support including Carbon Dating.

Plummet’s timeline from the carbon dating indicated that Lee’s “Norse phase,” happened during 0-500 AD. The people might have been a northern European culture, which was used to construction using large stones. The Danish culture, which left large stone construction in England, might be a candidate for the first occupation.

The Dorset Phase was probably the Dorset culture, a culture that developed in America.

Lee’s “Thule” phase was probably the Greenlander (Lenape) migration of about 1350. There is still an intellectual debate about the Thule. The accepted hypothesis is that Thule developed in the center of Canada and migrated to Davis Strait, where they intermarried with a few Norse. The alternate hypothesis is that the Thule developed from Dorset intermarriage with Norse people and migrated to central Canada.

The first hypothesis fits into the Eurocentric paradigm; only natives were in America when Europe invaded. The evidence favors the second hypothesis. Lee could identify European skulls but he might not have been able to tell the difference between a Norse and a Thule site based on stone artifacts alone.Longhouse Site

Lee had not expected to find any metal objects. Never the less, an ancient Norse ax was found. The ax may have been found in context but Plummet, who was then a member of Lee’s team, apparently moved the ax. When Lee found out about the ax, it was out of context. A professional feud between Lee and Plummet apparently began.

In 1982, Plummet gave a description of the longhouses around Ungava Bay and sums up excavation data for a few of them. In conclusion Plummet wrote:

"The Dorset longhouse is a structure built with the same technical resources as other Dorset habitations. ... Analogies [to other longhouses] can be explained by a basic convergence in function and by similar technical constraints.

(Plummet, 1982)

The words above are the summary in English as written by Plummet. A translation of sections of the French text indicated that much important data was left out of the summary. This data included the Carbon-14 dating, post holes, a copper knife dated to the 12th century, a metal needle, two handles for metal tools, a wooden doll’s head, an arrow with a metal arrow head, about fifty glass bead found in various places. This data gives a better understanding of the last occupation culture than the stones. See Thule above.

Plummet had very important data relating to the migration of the Lenape. But the research reports appear to indicate he was more eager to discredit Lee. So he buried the data in the French report. Then he wrote an English summary, which said that the stone long houses were the work of Dorset alone and not Norse as Lee advocated.

Stone Tower

Stone TowerThe stone tower, a lavabo and keep of a medieval church, still stands in Newark, Rhode Island. (Holand, 1958)  

Verrazano (1524) reported that the people near the stone tower said they lived in "Agonsy." (Stromsted, 1973)

"Agonsy" sounded similar, in Massachusetts colonial times, to "Akomenack," the rivers "Akhushnut," "Akoont," "Akoakest," and "Akqussent." There were also tracts of land, hills, and necks of land with names such as "Akawmack," "Akashewah," "Akomonticus," "Akoakset," "Akockus," "Akoughcouss," "Akquiatt," "Akushnet," and "Akushena. The word "Akomac" was used from Massachusetts to the Potomac River to describe areas where the "Nause," among other tribes, lived.

Comment: "Agonsy" may have derived from 'Haakon's See" meaning, "the Bishopric of Haakon."



Earl Shorris wrote in his book The Death of the Great Spirit, 1978, that “The suppression of the true history of America is one of the more exquisite works of human society”

This episode in the suppression of the true History of America is one of the many episodes where the solid evidence has been suppressed in favor of the Eurocentric Paradigm. The Eurocentric paradigm is the "exquisite works," which affects all pre-history and early history of America.